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Plutonium

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Plutonium

Kernphysikalisch sind die meisten Plutonium-Isotope (Pu) relativ langlebige Atomkerne, die unter. Emission von Alpha-Teilchen (Heliumkernen mit einer Masse. Plutonium ist ein hochgiftiges, radioaktives Element, das in der Natur nicht vorkommt. Es wird in Atomreaktoren erzeugt und ist Ausgangsmaterial für die. Hohe Sicherheitsanforderungen in Betrieben, die mit Plutonium arbeiten, garantieren heute weitgehend, daß eine Kontamination der Beschäftigten vermieden.

Plutonium Entstehung und Verwendung von Plutonium in der heutigen Kernenergiewirtschaft

Plutonium ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pu und der Ordnungszahl Es hat damit die höchste Ordnungszahl aller natürlich vorkommenden Elemente. Im Periodensystem steht es in der Gruppe der Actinoide und zählt zu den. Plutonium – Wikipedia. Plutonium (Pu) ist ein Schwermetall und hat die Ordnungszahl Für den menschlichen Körper ist es chemisch giftig wie einige andere Schwermetalle, z.B. Plutonium ist ein hochgiftiges, radioaktives Element, das in der Natur nicht vorkommt. Es wird in Atomreaktoren erzeugt und ist Ausgangsmaterial für die. Plutonium in reiner Form ist ein silbrig glänzendes, radioaktives Schwermetall mit sehr hoher Dichte. Im Vergleich zu den anderen Metallen ist es ein sehr. Die Atombombe, mit der die japanische Stadt Nagasaki zerstört wurde, enthielt Plutonium Pu als Spaltstoff. Auch in Deutschland hatte zur Zeit der Entdeckung. Hohe Sicherheitsanforderungen in Betrieben, die mit Plutonium arbeiten, garantieren heute weitgehend, daß eine Kontamination der Beschäftigten vermieden.

Plutonium

Plutonium ist ein hochgefährliches radioaktives Element, welches bei der Kernenergienutzung entsteht und verwendet wird. Einige Tonnen. Plutonium in reiner Form ist ein silbrig glänzendes, radioaktives Schwermetall mit sehr hoher Dichte. Im Vergleich zu den anderen Metallen ist es ein sehr. Die Atombombe, mit der die japanische Stadt Nagasaki zerstört wurde, enthielt Plutonium Pu als Spaltstoff. Auch in Deutschland hatte zur Zeit der Entdeckung.

Plutonium Menu nawigacyjne Video

PLUTONIUM - Nucleus

Plutonium Geschichte

Int J Radiat Biol ; 15a. DE nicht. Andere entstandene Spaltprodukte bleiben dabei zurück. Ein Anteil von zehn Prozent wird entweder ausgeschieden oder in die übrigen Gewebe verteilt. Plutonium produziert bei jeder Kernspaltung durchschnittlich 2,7 Neutronen, so Logan Film eine Kettenreaktion ausgelöst wird. Cefola und Louis B. Plutonium ist ein giftiges Wasp Deutsch radioaktives Schwermetall.

In practical terms, there are two different kinds of plutonium to be considered: reactor-grade and weapons-grade. The second is made specially for the military purpose, and is recovered from uranium fuel that has been irradiated for only months in a plutonium production reactor.

The two kinds differ in their isotopic composition but must both be regarded as a potential proliferation risk, and managed accordingly.

Plutonium, both that routinely made in power reactors and that from dismantled nuclear weapons, is a valuable energy source when integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle.

In a conventional nuclear reactor, one kilogram of Pu can produce sufficient heat to generate nearly 8 million kilowatt-hours of electricity.

Like all other heavy elements, plutonium has a number of isotopes, differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

All 15 plutonium isotopes are radioactive, because they are to some degree unstable and therefore decay, emitting particles and some gamma radiation as they do so.

All plutonium isotopes are fissionable with fast neutrons, though only two are fissile with slow neutrons. For this reason all are significant in a fast neutron reactor FNR , but only one — Pu — has a major role in a conventional light water power reactor.

In a fast reactor this proportion is much less. The approximately 1. Examples of the types of variation in plutonium composition produced from different sources 1.

Plutonium is the second most common isotope, formed by neutron capture by Pu in about one-third of impacts. Its concentration in nuclear fuel builds up steadily, since it does not undergo fission to produce energy in the same way as Pu In a fast neutron reactor it is fissionable c , which means that such a reactor can utilise recycled plutonium more effectively than a LWR.

While of a different order of magnitude to the fission occurring within a nuclear reactor, Pu has a relatively high rate of spontaneous fission with consequent neutron emissions.

This makes reactor-grade plutonium entirely unsuitable for use in a bomb see section on Plutonium and weapons below.

This is also called 'civil plutonium'. Plutonium, Pu and Pu emit neutrons as a few of their nuclei spontaneously fission, albeit at a low rate.

They and Pu also decay, emitting alpha particles and heat. A MWe light water reactor gives rise to about 25 tonnes of used fuel a year, containing up to kilograms of plutonium.

If the plutonium is extracted from used reactor fuel it can be used as a direct substitute for U in the usual fuel, the Pu being the main fissile part, but Pu also contributing.

Plutonium can also be used in fast neutron reactors, where a much higher proportion of Pu fissions and in fact all the plutonium isotopes fission, and so function as a fuel.

As with uranium, the energy potential of plutonium is more fully realised in a fast reactor. Four of the six 'Generation IV' reactor designs currently under development are fast neutron reactors and will thus utilize plutonium in some way see page on Generation IV Nuclear Reactors.

In these, plutonium production will take place in the core, where burn-up is high and the proportion of plutonium isotopes other than Pu will remain high.

One is nearly twice the density of lead The alpha phase is hard and brittle, like cast iron, and if finely divided it spontaneously ignites in air to form PuO 2.

Beta, gamma and delta phases are all less dense. Alloyed with gallium, plutonium becomes more workable. Russia has maintained a positive policy of civil plutonium utilization.

Apart from its formation in today's nuclear reactors, plutonium was formed by the operation of naturally-occurring nuclear reactors in uranium deposits at Oklo in what is now west Africa, some two billion years ago.

Civil plutonium stored over several years becomes contaminated with the Pu decay product americium see page on Smoke Detectors and Americium , which interferes with normal fuel fabrication procedures.

In mid a plan was announced to extract americium from the UK plutonium stockpile, much of it old. The European Space Agency is paying NNL to produce Am for watt e radioisotope thermoelectric generators RTGs using very pure Am recovered from old civil plutonium, as the isotope is much less expensive than Pu now scarce.

Of some 2, types of radioisotopes known to humankind, only 22 are capable of powering a deep-space probe, according to a study by the US National Academy of Sciences.

The decay heat of Pu 0. These spacecraft have operated for 20 years and may continue for another The Cassini spacecraft carried three generators with 33 kg of plutonium oxide providing watts power as it orbited around Saturn, having taken seven years to get there.

See also information paper on Nuclear Reactors and Radioisotopes for Space. Plutonium is made by irradiating neptunium, recovered from research reactor fuel or special targets, in research reactors.

Np is formed and quickly decays to Pu Pu was then recovered by further reprocessing at the H Canyon plant there. This was essentially Cold War-origin material.

Currently, supplies of high-purity Pu are scarce. Since the early s after production ceased at Savannah River in , the USA was buying all its supply for spacecraft from Russia — some The USA plans to recommence production at up to 2.

INL supplies the neptunium and will do some of the irradiation. It will use the High Flux Isotope Reactor, irradiating neptunium targets for 72 days.

The plutonium is then chemically separated and purified to produce an oxide powder. ORNL expects full production from , ramping up to 1.

It is now starting to produce this, with the targets being processed at Idaho, and the oxide product stored at Los Alamos. In December the DOE announced the first US Pu production since , albeit only 50 grams, and the total to end of was expected to be g.

It is expected to run out by about The priorities for this are the Mars rover and a single deep space mission such as Europa Clipper planned for the mids.

OPG is seeking regulatory approval to begin Pu production at Darlington by , using a similar process to that at its Pickering units to produce cobalt These will be irradiated at Darlington then returned to Chalk River for processing.

Production target is 5 kg Pu per year by about Early heart pacemakers used Pu as the power source, and after 30 years some were still running well.

It takes about 10 kilograms of nearly pure Pu to make a bomb though the Nagasaki bomb in used less. Producing this requires 30 megawatt-years of reactor operation, with frequent fuel changes and reprocessing of the 'hot' fuel.

Allowing the fuel to stay longer in the reactor increases the concentration of the higher isotopes of plutonium, in particular the Pu isotope, as can be seen in the Table above.

For weapons use, Pu is considered a serious contaminant, due to higher neutron emission and higher heat production. It is not feasible to separate Pu from Pu The operational requirements of power reactors and plutonium production reactors are quite different, and so therefore is their design.

An explosive device could be made from plutonium extracted from low burn-up reactor fuel i. Typical 'reactor-grade' plutonium recovered from reprocessing used power reactor fuel has about one-third non-fissile isotopes mainly Pu d.

A report released by the UK's Ministry of Defence MoD says that both the Calder Hall and the Chapelcross power stations, which started up in and respectively, were operated on this basis 3.

The government confirmed in April that production of plutonium for defence purposes had ceased in the s at these two stations, which are both now permanently shutdown.

The other UK Magnox reactors were civil stations subject to full international safeguards. International safeguards arrangements applied to traded uranium extend to the plutonium arising from it, ensuring constant audits even of reactor-grade material.

The isotope plutonium is a key fissile component in nuclear weapons, due to its ease of fission and availability. Encasing the bomb's plutonium pit in a tamper an optional layer of dense material decreases the amount of plutonium needed to reach critical mass by reflecting escaping neutrons back into the plutonium core.

The Fat Man plutonium bombs used explosive compression of plutonium to obtain significantly higher densities than normal, combined with a central neutron source to begin the reaction and increase efficiency.

Thus only 6. Spent nuclear fuel from normal light water reactors contains plutonium, but it is a mixture of plutonium , , and The mixture is not sufficiently enriched for efficient nuclear weapons, but can be used once as MOX fuel.

If fast neutron reactors are not available the normal case , excess plutonium is usually discarded, and forms one of the longest-lived components of nuclear waste.

The desire to consume this plutonium and other transuranic fuels and reduce the radiotoxicity of the waste is the usual reason nuclear engineers give to make fast neutron reactors.

Weapons-grade plutonium can be added to the fuel mix. MOX fuel has been in use since the s, and is widely used in Europe.

MOX fuel improves total burnup. Plutonium recovered from spent reactor fuel poses little proliferation hazard, because of excessive contamination with non-fissile plutonium and plutonium Separation of the isotopes is not feasible.

A dedicated reactor operating on very low burnup hence minimal exposure of newly formed plutonium to additional neutrons which causes it to be transformed to heavier isotopes of plutonium is generally required to produce material suitable for use in efficient nuclear weapons.

The IAEA conservatively classifies plutonium of all isotopic vectors as "direct-use" material, that is, "nuclear material that can be used for the manufacture of nuclear explosives components without transmutation or further enrichment".

The isotope plutonium has a half-life of A sheet of paper can be used to shield against the alpha particles emitted by plutonium One kilogram of the isotope can generate about watts of heat.

These characteristics make it well-suited for electrical power generation for devices that must function without direct maintenance for timescales approximating a human lifetime.

It is therefore used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heater units such as those in the Cassini , [] Voyager , Galileo and New Horizons [] space probes, and the Curiosity [] and Perseverance rover Mars Mars Rovers.

The twin Voyager spacecraft were launched in , each containing a watt plutonium power source. Over 30 years later, each source is still producing about watts which allows limited operation of each spacecraft.

Plutonium has also been used successfully to power artificial heart pacemakers , to reduce the risk of repeated surgery. There are two aspects to the harmful effects of plutonium: the radioactivity and the heavy metal poison effects.

Isotopes and compounds of plutonium are radioactive and accumulate in bone marrow. Contamination by plutonium oxide has resulted from nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents , including military nuclear accidents where nuclear weapons have burned.

During the decay of plutonium, three types of radiation are released—alpha, beta, and gamma. Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation are all forms of ionizing radiation.

Either acute or longer-term exposure carries a danger of serious health outcomes including radiation sickness , genetic damage , cancer , and death.

The danger increases with the amount of exposure. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin, but cannot go all the way through the body.

Gamma radiation can go all the way through the body. Plutonium is more dangerous when inhaled than when ingested. The risk of lung cancer increases once the total radiation dose equivalent of inhaled plutonium exceeds mSv.

However, no human being is known to have died because of inhaling or ingesting plutonium, and many people have measurable amounts of plutonium in their bodies.

The " hot particle " theory in which a particle of plutonium dust irradiates a localized spot of lung tissue is not supported by mainstream research—such particles are more mobile than originally thought and toxicity is not measurably increased due to particulate form.

Once in the bloodstream, plutonium moves throughout the body and into the bones, liver, or other body organs. Plutonium that reaches body organs generally stays in the body for decades and continues to expose the surrounding tissue to radiation and thus may cause cancer.

Several populations of people who have been exposed to plutonium dust e. Cohen found these studies inconsistent with high estimates of plutonium toxicity, citing cases such as Albert Stevens who survived into old age after being injected with plutonium.

Plutonium has a metallic taste. Care must be taken to avoid the accumulation of amounts of plutonium which approach critical mass, particularly because plutonium's critical mass is only a third of that of uranium Criticality accidents have occurred in the past, some of them with lethal consequences.

Careless handling of tungsten carbide bricks around a 6. In December , during a process of purifying plutonium at Los Alamos, a critical mass was formed in a mixing vessel, which resulted in the death of a chemical operator named Cecil Kelley.

Other nuclear accidents have occurred in the Soviet Union, Japan, the United States, and many other countries. Metallic plutonium is a fire hazard, especially if the material is finely divided.

In a moist environment, plutonium forms hydrides on its surface, which are pyrophoric and may ignite in air at room temperature. Magnesium oxide sand is probably the most effective material for extinguishing a plutonium fire.

It cools the burning material, acting as a heat sink , and also blocks off oxygen. Special precautions are necessary to store or handle plutonium in any form; generally a dry inert gas atmosphere is required.

The usual transportation of plutonium is through the more stable plutonium oxide in a sealed package.

A sea shipment may consist of several containers, each of them holding a sealed package. Government air transport regulations permit the transport of plutonium by air, subject to restrictions on other dangerous materials carried on the same flight, packaging requirements, and stowage in the rearmost part of the aircraft.

In media revealed that plutonium has been flown out of Norway on commercial passenger airlines —around every other year—including one time in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the radioactive element. For other uses, see Plutonium disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number Main article: Allotropes of plutonium.

Main article: Isotopes of plutonium. See also: Reactor-grade plutonium. See also: Human radiation experiments and Albert Stevens. Main article: Nuclear reprocessing.

See also: Plutonium in the environment. A decade after barium was discovered, a Cambridge University professor suggested it be renamed to "plutonium" because the element was not as suggested by the Greek root, barys , it was named for heavy.

He reasoned that, since it was produced by the relatively new technique of electrolysis , its name should refer to fire. Thus he suggested it be named for the Roman god of the underworld, Pluto.

Seaborg thought that he would receive a great deal of flak over that suggestion, but the naming committee accepted the symbol without a word.

National Historic Landmark. These so-called 'hydrogen bombs' are a variety of nuclear weapon that use a fission bomb to trigger the nuclear fusion of heavy hydrogen isotopes.

Their destructive yield is commonly in the millions of tons of TNT equivalent compared with the thousands of tons of TNT equivalent of fission-only devices.

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Retrieved February 9, While plutonium dioxide is normally olive green, samples can be various colors.

It is generally believed that the color is a function of chemical purity, stoichiometry, particle size, and method of preparation, although the color resulting from a given preparation method is not always reproducible.

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Briggs; et al. Nuclear Weapons Frequently Asked Questions, edition 2. The Nuclear Weapon Archive. Retrieved January 4, Los Alamos.

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Bechtel said. The power will continue to decrease as the metal decays, but there is enough of it to command the probe for another 20 years, according to Curt Niebur, a NASA program scientist on the New Horizons mission.

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August auf Nagasaki abgeworfen wurde Fat Man. In Abhängigkeit von der Löslichkeit der eingeatmeten Plutoniumverbindung verbleibt das Plutonium unterschiedlich lang in Psn Namen ändern Lunge. Noch deutlicher ist dieses Verhalten nach Gabe Anime Stream Deutsch Plutonium V nitrat. Toxische Effekte durch chemische Mechanismen sind bei so geringen Stoffmengen nicht zu erwarten Int J Radiat Biol ; 15a. Strahlentherapie Suppl Die Spaltprodukte und anderen Bestandteile bleiben dabei zurück. Der amerikanische Chemiker D. Science Tot Environm ; Hoffman, F. Durch die Radioaktivität des Plutoniums muss vielmehr auch mit schädlichen Strahlenwirkungen durch Alpha- und Gammastrahlung gerechnet werden. Durch die Bestrahlung mit schnellen Neutronen erhielten sie gleichzeitig das Isotop Pu Dabei wird es aber nur in kleinsten Spuren in sehr alten Gesteinen gefunden. Plutonium ist ein unvermeidliches Nebenprodukt der Zum Töten Freigegeben Ganzer Film Deutsch in Atomkraftwerken. Home und Neuigkeiten. Weiterhin muss unbedingt verhindert werden, dass eine kritische Masse entsteht, die zur Kettenreaktion und damit zu unkontrolllierter Energie- Schaf Comic Strahlungsfreisetzung führt. Es bestimmt, wer unter welchen Bedingungen Plutonium in Deutschland befördern und besitzen darf. Rad Res ; 2.

Plutonium - Inhaltsverzeichnis

Diese Verbindung ist ein Feststoff mit hoher Schmelztemperatur. Die chemische Giftigkeit von Plutonium wird jedoch von vielen anderen Stoffen übertroffen. Plutonium Kernphysikalisch sind die meisten Plutonium-Isotope (Pu) relativ langlebige Atomkerne, die unter. Emission von Alpha-Teilchen (Heliumkernen mit einer Masse. Plutonium ist ein hochgefährliches radioaktives Element, welches bei der Kernenergienutzung entsteht und verwendet wird. Einige Tonnen. Isotopentabelle: Plutonium. Isotop Nuklid, Z, A, N, Name, Atommasse [​Kernmasse] {Massenüberschuss}, Spin I. Plutonium Plutonium The committee issued a controversial report which said that "wrongs were Esc Stream but it did not condemn those who perpetrated them. Plutonium is a silvery metal that takes on a yellow tarnish in air. Plutonium has also been used successfully to power artificial heart pacemakersto reduce the risk of repeated surgery. Japan: Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Allowing Supernatural Serienstream To fuel to stay longer When I Kissed The Teacher the reactor increases the concentration of the higher isotopes of plutonium, in particular the Pu isotope, as can be seen in the Table above. These neutrons can hit other atoms of plutonium and so on in an exponentially fast chain reaction. In the case of human subjects, this involved injecting solutions containing typically five micrograms of plutonium into hospital patients thought to be either terminally ill, or to have a life expectancy of less than Dalai Lama Heidelberg years either due to age or chronic disease condition. Nuclear technology. History News Network. The mixture is not sufficiently enriched for efficient nuclear weapons, but can be used Plutonium as MOX fuel. This, the most common structural form of the element allotropeis about as hard and brittle as gray Cameron Diaz Sex iron unless it is alloyed with other metals to make it soft and ductile. Oxford University Press. Colo Med. Retrieved January 24, The fissile isotopes can be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, others are capable of absorbing Neben Synonym and becoming fissile i. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin, but cannot go all the way through the body. There Movie4k Pitch Perfect two aspects to the Ted Kinox.To effects of plutonium: the radioactivity and the heavy metal poison effects. Plutonium

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